Renault’s compact electric car, the Zoe went through testing by -25 °C in Lapland. The cold causes a series of consequences that can be problematic for cars with electrons
• If a battery is too cold, it will not charge completely, and it requires a temperature of about 20°C for optimal operation.
• It may not provide the necessary power to the motor and penalize acceleration.
• It won’t as fast as normally with a quick charger. However, if you use a conventional charger, charging time does not change.
But compared to ICEs electric cars have some advantages:
• No need to warm up the engine before starting to drive
• Absence of smoke
The Zoe goes further with a heat pump that produces 3kW of heat with only 1kW of electricity, a programmable start is also possible to heat the car before your departure.
Although, quoting Renault’s article: “drops in performance are almost unnoticeable. The battery performs very well in cold conditions from this point of view. More noticeable in cold conditions is reduced range, but ZOE remains one of the best mass-produced electric vehicles in this respect” here is what we have about the effect on the range, but no precise data.
Other parameters specific to electric cars have also been verified by Renault engineers. For example, the charging trapdoor must open without difficulty, the cable mustn’t get stuck and maintain its flexibility to be wound up after use.
The other elements analyzed during these cold weather tests are the usual ones carried out regardless of the powertrain: heating, defrosting, braking aid and lighting.